„Because this decision makes it clear that there is no need to demonstrate the exploitation of vulnerabilities, it expands the scope of the legal prohibition on unscrupulous behavior, so that it will protect more consumers and small businesses from egregious corporate behavior.“ „Unequal bargaining power“ is a term used in English law to express essentially the same idea as lack of scruples, which in turn can be divided into coercion, undue influence and exploitation of weakness. In these cases, where a person`s consent to an agreement was obtained only through coercion, undue influence or intense external pressure that another person exploited, the courts found it unscrupulous to enforce the agreements. There is controversy over whether a contract should be questionable simply because one party has been pressured by circumstances that are completely beyond the control of the other party. Professor Jeannie Paterson, a specialist in contracts, consumer protection and consumer credit law at the University of Melbourne, says there is still legal uncertainty surrounding unscrupulous behaviour. (4) any conduct manifested by the Supplier or the Customer in the context of their business relationship after the conclusion of the contract After the second contractual declaration, a party may assert a request for exemption from unilateral errors in relation to the terms of a contract or a contractual replacement clause. A remedy for unilateral errors may be granted if the error renders the performance of the contract unscrupulous. Reprocessing takes into account factors such as: 1) the promisor`s lack of confidence; and (2) flagrant divergence of the values exchanged.  (f) the extent to which the supplier`s behaviour towards the customer coincided with the supplier`s behaviour in similar transactions between the supplier and other similar customers A recent decision of the plenary session of the Federal Court on a case of the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) against the Quantum Housing Group provided some important clarifications on: which is unscrupulous behavior of a company. The main case of undue influence is considered as Lloyds Bank Ltd v. Bundy;  The case is remarkable in that the verdict was that English law should adopt the American approach that all infringements of autonomy should fall under the unified principle of „unequal bargaining power.“ In this case, Bundy agreed to increase the mortgage on his farm to maintain the line of credit, which was extended to his son`s business. The question was whether the contract that led to the takeover of Bundy`s farm was questionable due to pressure from the bank. The Court of Appeal for England and Wales held that, since the loan amount was already greater than the existing mortgage, Bundy had not received any direct benefit from the agreement to increase the mortgage amount; that the bank did not inform him of the actual financial situation of her son`s business and threatened to claim her son`s loan if Bundy did not accept the increase.
Since Bundy relied on Lloyd`s for his son`s mortgage and line of credit, it was determined that the bank-client relationship had established a fiduciary duty; Therefore, the bank should have recommended that he seek independent legal advice.  Lord Denning MR concluded that the contract was countervailable because of Bundy`s unequal bargaining position, because it had entered into the contract without independent advice and the bank was exerting unfair pressure. Essentially, the court ruled that only the bank benefited from the mortgage increase agreement and took advantage of Bundy`s weakness. The transaction turned out to be unscrupulous and Bundy only had to comply with the lower amount of the mortgage. However, a serious undervaluation of real estate and a totally inadequate consideration in itself do not make it possible to determine whether a transaction is unscrupulous. For example, in one case in Ontario, an owner agreed to sell an option to sell his property for $1.00. The owner later learned that options to purchase a property are usually sold for more than nominal amounts. The court applied the contract in favor of the option holder, ruling that negotiations on the option price and the price the option holder would pay for the house if they chose to buy were both negotiated fairly and that the seller had ample opportunity to investigate the market and simply did not do so. [Citation needed] „In the latter case, it comes down to the inherent injustice and clearly shows that the unscrupulous behavior is quite broad.“ Fels says that overall, courts have been cautious when making judgments about unscrupulous behavior, as they often involve difficult judgment exercises. This type of unscrupulous behavior is evaluated in relation to: the lack of procedural scruples is considered the disadvantage of a weaker party in the negotiations, while the lack of substantial scruples refers to the unfairness of the conditions or results. Most often, the first leads to the second, but not always.
The existence of a lack of procedural scruples without a lack of substantial scruples may be enough to cancel a contract, but not only the contract. As with review questions, the role of the court is not to determine whether someone has concluded a good or bad deal, but only whether that party has had the opportunity to properly assess what was best in their own interest. The court ruled in favor of the ACCC and ruled that Quantum had made false or misleading statements and exhibited systemically unscrupulous behavior. The lack of scruples is established by examining the circumstances of the parties at the time of conclusion of the contract, such as. B their bargaining power, age and mental capacity. Other issues may include lack of choice, superior knowledge, and other obligations or circumstances related to the negotiation process. Unscrupulous behavior is also found in acts of fraud and deception, where the deliberate misrepresentation of facts deprives someone of valuable property. If one party exploits another unscrupulously, the act may be treated as criminal fraud or as a civil act of deception. .